Notes from Mom’s (Doris Floyd Schmitke) Bible
1. Gen. 28:12 Diff. of Documentary Hypothesis-there are internal differences in regard to words and also-example-Jacob goes to sleep & dreams in E doc and wakes in J. Doc. Petrie says “Is it credible that such consistency (a unified story) would result from a patchwork picked out of a ragbag of scattered legends.”
Isaiah 41: 21-24 Man from natural standpoint can’t work out the future. Their prophecies were ambiguous. A little before 500 Caesar & Cyrus fought. As their armies approached Halys River, Caesar thought he’d get advice so went to oracle & asked if he should cross Halys. Oracle said “If you cross Halys the great empire will fall.” He wanted Cyrus to fall & so crossed.—great empire fell but it was his own. History has demonstrated truth of the Lord’s prophecy-2 yrs, Sidon, Memphis, Thebes, Babylon, Charnyx (sp?), Capernaum, Bethsaida, Host of others.
1A. Modern critics say earliest forms of religion was polytheism, but Bible teaches monotheism. Answer: Dr. Langdon of Oxford has found and studied clay tablets and says monotheism was the earliest religion (verse 1)
1 Ci Acts 27:6 Founded by Alexander in 331 BC in Egypt. The Septuagint was accomplished here. It was the principal center of Jewish life in Egypt and second Jewish city in world.
2. There are seven creation tablets which have a similar beginning, a chaos of waters, and idea of firmament and heavens created on 4 th day and man on 6 th. However, they differ in that order of creation differs at many points and the Babylonians account is largely polytheistic. And Morduk is identified with sun. They are no doubt legends handed down if there is any connection. (verse 5)
a. Hebrews borrowed from Babylonians
b. No connection
c. Perhaps facts were handed down and became overlaid with polytheistic ideas.
2B Gen. 12:1 Modernists say may be an Abraham-if so a tribesman of the desert (ignorant)
Ans. Abram’s city has been excavated-the center of culture and education. Discoveries by Woolley at UR show children were taught 3R’s. Also, houses were well developed---high civilization.
3. Gen. 1:27 Creation tablets in Genesis: Critical idea, in 1900 Frederick Dalizsch brought out that Bible stories were merely purification of pagan legends. However, we can know Bible is true by:
a. Fulfilled prophesy
b. Testimony of changed lives of believers
c. Confirmation of archeology
d. Monotheism precedes polytheism.
Ezekiel 26:3,4 [And 21B] Tyre-Seize of Tyre by Neb (13 yr) when doomed moves city to island. Alex after 33 yrs scraped old city base to Juild (?) a causeway to island. Today it is a place for spreading of nets It has not been built for 2500 yrs although there is a spring which would make it good for a town.
3A. During 19 th century people thought Egypt was center of civilization. Bible would indicate Mesopotamia.
Ans. Sir Flinders Petrie, Egyptologist says center was not Egypt. Excavations in Ur show civilization of Ur is older than Egypt. Iran found 2,000 years before Iron Age, oldest piece of glass found there. At meeting of American Oriental Society opinion pointed toward Mesopotamia. (verse 10 and 14)
4. Gen 1:2 The deep (Tehom)
1. Liberals say Tehom IS Related Tiamrob
2. Sea or deep would have to come before personification of it
3. Albright points out lack of any story of conflict between creator and dragon at beginning
4. Heidel says Tehom cannot come from Tiamrab on basis of Semitic linguistics.
4 & 8A Ezekiel 30:13 Memphis in north & oldest capital of Egypt (3000-2200 ) same as Noph. Thebes is about 450 miles south. Fulfillment of prophecies. A) Thebes-v 13 & 16. Destroyed in 661 BC by Syrians, rebuilt & destroyed by Persians about 525 BC Rebuilt & destroyed again about 100 BC and by an earthquake 27 BC b) Memphis v. 13 1100 yrs after Ezekiel (600 AD) Moslems used images from Noph to build Cairo. Today only 3 statues (out of hundreds) remain.
2 Ci- Acts 11: 25 The chief city in Cilicia. It lies along banks of Cydnes (sp?) river and is very fertile. It is one of the ancient cities of the Near East.
4 Ci. Acts 11:22 One of main Hellenistic centers not founded by Alexander the Great. Founded in 301 BC by Seleucus Nicator-capitol of Syria. It was a principal business center of the East. Its greatest importance was from the cultural standpoint. It was one of chief centers of influence in scheme of Hellenism of the East.
5 Job 9:13 Means “helpers of Rahab” Liberals refer this to Tiamrob but Tiamrob is not even mentioned 7 to make every reference to Satan refer to her is to make a similarity where this is none.
Ezekiel 25:16 Repelled by Rameses III in 1200 & settled along the coast of Palestine. Saul & David fought against them. All non-Jewish people have disappeared except Jews along those coastal areas. Citrus fruits groves are now ether their forts were.
5A Gen. 15:20 Modernists say Hittites never existed. Bible mentions them in about 40 passages.
Ans. Winkler, German, in 1906 found capital of Hittites at Boghas-Kor (sp?).
5B Deut. 3:8 Scholars agree Amorites were Semitic stock. Two theories of original home: 1) Anabrian penin 2) Lebanon Valley
Were they eastern or western Semites. Barton believes eastern Sayce, English scholar says western tribes of No Mesopotamia, Syria & Palestine. We find them in central Canaan, and also eastern station of Transjordan. Their political and cultural center is the Lebanon Valley.
5 Ci- Acts 20:17 Capital of province of Asia during N.T. period. It was great political center. It was ranking city is commercial & religious interests. It was easily approached by all interior highways and so was an open market-place. The ruins of the city have hardly been disturbed. Temple theatre, etc. have been found by many things are still hidden.
6. Gen 2:3 The Sabbath
a. Scriptures shows estab of Sabbath and principles at very early time.
b. This is possibly reflected on arch. Monuments in Babylonia and~Special day.
c. Differences: (1) Special day included 7, 14, 19, 21, 28
(2) Included only certain classes
6A Gen. 37:25 Ishmaelites were going from Gilead to Egypt. Joseph & brothers were at Dothan.
Answer: There was a transverse route running from Transjordan route to Central route. So this topographical study shows they went right through Dothan.
6B Gen. 15;:18 From Dan to Beersheba is 150 mi. Some object Palestine would not be large enough to hold all Jews if they return (15 mil Jews)
Ans. Gen 15:18 shows that the real promised land runs from river of Egypt to upper regions of Euphrates. This would be about 800 mi. long. Plenty of room for Jews.
6 Ci Acts 16:12 A border town in Roman defenses. It was a dignified representative of Roman life and thought. Its government was strictly Roman.
7. Gen. 2:8 Garden of Eden & Archeology
a. Bible refers to it as a historical place
b. An idea of Eden survives among all nations. Nippur tablets and Ashwer tablets (tells how man was put to till the ground).
c. Located in Mesopotamia & Mes. Shown to be cradle of civilization
d. Among all peoples we have belief in a time of Paradise
7A Deut. 7:2 Why were pagan people of Canaan to be driven out or destroyed?
Ans. Excavation at Gezer by Britisher named McAllister from 1904-1909 show evidence of child sacrifices. Excavations at Kirjath-Sepher show a degraded form of sex worship. Also evidence that temples were centers of vice.
Ezekiel 28:22, 23 [also 2] Under Persian rule 40,000 people shut themselves up & burned their houses & perished in flames. Seize of Alexander the Great (334) Time of Titus (70 AD) captured 3 times by Crusaders. In 1841 bombed-In June 1941 shelled by British warships.
7 Ci. Acts 17:1 Chief commercial center of Macedonia. Its land and maritime interests made it an emporium of the first rank. It was clearly loyal to Roman emperor and easily stirred by religious prejudices.
8. Gen. 3:6 Fall of Man
Story of Adapa on clay tablets. If he ate of certain food he would gain knowledge but did not and as punishment made subject to sickness and clothed in special clothing—May point to true fall but there are certain ways in which stories do not compare.
Lev. 26:31 In 129-30 Bar Cahba (son of star) led a rebellion & Roman Hadrian came & plowed up temple grounds & forebade re-entrance of Jews. Dome of Rock is on the spot today-Second most holy Moslem building.
8 Ci. Acts 17:15 Principle city of Greece. Athens has always been a great center. The Acropolis was founded for religion.
9. Gen. 4:18 Patriarchs before flood-
In clay tablets some kings are said to have reigned over 36,000 years. It is natural to think they would have lived longer-sin had not had such effects.
Relationship between Gen. 4 & 5: Only two names are identical-Enoch and Lamech & they are different people.
9A Gen. 12:12 Various scholars have asserted neither Abraham or children of Israel were even in Egypt. At Beni-Hassan was found picture in tomb which shows group of people entering Egypt. (We know they are Semites because of dress & beards)
9B Exodus 5:11-13 Part of Unio of Liverpool says straw was rarely used in Egypt making bricks.
Ans. Anyone today can see straw in the old mud-brick walls. Also a papyrus manuscript has been recovered, a record of a contractor and he says he can’t make any progress in building because he has no straw to make brick.
9 Ci Acts 18:1 50 miles from Athens. Its population during Roman period was more than 100,000. It was chief power back of Sparta in the final thrust which issued fall of Athens in 434 BC It was a vital point in Christian enterprise.
10. Gen. 5:24 Clay tablets say Etona went to heaven & back on back of an eagle without dying-may be survival of story of Enoch.
10A Exodus 12:40 Critics say Israel is not mentioned in Egyptian monuments.
Ans. There are such monuments as Merneptah still found in Thebes in 1896 by Petrie, written by Merneptah says “Israel is desolate” The Egyptians did not record things uncomplimentary to themselves.
10 Ci- Capitol of Caesars. The dominating figure in old imperial affairs. The great arena of Mediterranean borderland where Christianity won its greatest triumphs. Though not mentioned often in the N.T. its towering figures is seen throughout.
11. Gen. 9:17 Babylonian account – Gilgamesh Epic – found in excavation of library of Ashurbanipal (sp?) found by Layard 1850 & Rassam1853-4. Similarities-building of ark, pitching with tar, cattle put aboard, flood came, ship rested on mountain, birds sent out, disembarkation, offering of sacrifice. Difference: it was local flood and a degraded polytheism
11A Ex. 16:35 Some say gum of tamarisk tree is manna
Ans. Differs from manna in that it can’t be baked or boiled, doesn’t appear in large quantity, doesn’t come out in double-quantity on Friday, and tastes more like medicine than food.
12. Gen. 12:1 Critics say 2 accounts of flood combined in one- one writer says same things & another writer does not & vice versa. Gilgamesh account has details from both writers—a detailed unified account.
12A Gen. 7:12 Critics say there probably never was a flood
Ans. Woolley found 8 ft. of sediment at Ur which implies a very great depth of water and mush have been caused by a flood unparalleled in history. Clay tablets also have been found.
Deut. 8:9 Thought in times past copper in promised land was pious hope
Ans. Smelting furnaces found at Khirbet En-Nadas by Glueck
13. Gen. 9: 6 Iron Age given as beginning about 1200 B.C. However, Bible shows iron was used by Tubal Cain hundreds of years before 1200 B.C.
Ans. Dr. Frankford (?), Univ. of Chi, found iron blade in period about 2700 BC In Egypt copper beads were found in undisturbed grave of about 4,000 BC. Good says there’s on period at site of Ubaid where there’s no evidence of metal.
Gives Noahic covenant of which one principle part is human gov. It is likely laws of God were handed down & diffused as codes-differences between code & laws of God are much larger than similarities.
13A. Matt. 11:21-24 seven branched candlestick found at Tell Hum or Tell Nahum (6) these 3 cities with one exception have become totally extinct. Tiberias & Magdala remain thriving cities.
14. Gen. 10:10 Bible indicates Babylonia was originally inhabited by now Semitic people. Arch shows early inhabitants were Sumerians. Ur-Woolley in 1925 found height of civilization 2500 BC
14A Gen. 13:10-11 Today it is not a desirable place to live. Excavations at Kezak show flourishing occupation about 2000 BC. Beth-shan has 21 layers-largest one 2000 BC. Jericho most prosperous at 2,000BC
[note for Gen. 9:29 Age=950]
15. Gen. 11:32 We might expect to find Babylonia words in Gen. because cradle of civ was there and Abraham came from there. Arch monuments are full of Babylonian words. Found in different writers’ material.
Josh. 10:5,6 Amarna tablets found by peasant woman 200 mi. so. Of Cairo in 1887-88 tell about Palestine being invaded by Habiri. Mentions king of Jerusalem & Joshua.
16. Gen. 12:16 Camels introduced in Egypt at very late period-yet Bible mentions Abraham’s camels. In museum in Paris is a statuette of camel dated Amarna Period (1400-1350 BC). Petrie at Abydos found 2 clay models of camels 3,000 BC. In Faynon-Cato Thompson came to level of 3 rd or 4 th dynasty (2700-2500 BC) & found camel-hair rope. Camel’s skull found -2,000 BC (Just before war).
16A Josh. 12: 11 Garstang excavated El Kedah & on top of 1400 BC layer found layer of ashes. Amarna letters say “Let my Lord the King recall what Hazor & its king have had to endure”< /span>
16B Josh 6:24 Garstang about 30 yrs ago found layer of ashes on top of 1400 BC layer
16C Josh. 10: 12, 13 Some say it’s just poetry
Answer: Poetry is often used for true events. The poetry is followed by same thing in prose.
17. Gen. 13:7 Bible indicates presence of other people in Canaan in items by Egyptian Sinobe tells how he fled to Canaan & tells about combat he had with a man who reminds us of wicked men of Sodom
II Kings 3:4,5 Moabite Stone found in 1868 on banks of Arnon by Klein. Says “I will oppress Moab.”
18. Gen. 14:5 Critics said improbable. In 1929 Albright discovered line of mounds dating back to E & M Bronze (3200-2200; 22000-1600). They all run along eastern Gilead (50-80 miles east of Jordan)
18A. Isaiah 20:1 Critics say Sargon never existed.
Ans. Botta at Kharsobad in 1843 found his palace.
19. Gen. 15:16 Scriptures do indicate pagan dwellers of Canaan were wicked people.
a. Arch their practice of child sacrifice-Gezer cemetery of newborn children-within perimeter of temple area.
b. A debase type of sex worship-Gezer & other places
c. A worship of principle of fertility. Ras Shamu tablets
Jonah 1:2 Critics say Nineveh was not great. Layard excavated 1845-Wall was 8 miles around & 12 mi. no is Khaisabad, 8 mi. so. Is Caleh & Nimrod is 14 or 15 mi. south. All these outlying cities make it great.
20. Gen 16:1 Critical theory says Ch. 16 is doublet of Ch. 21. However, they are two events because the first time Habar left was before the birth of Ishmael & the second time was after birth of Isaac-several years later. The Amarna tablets duplicate about same situation. Also, in 187? at Sadan, France, Germans pushed through. I n1939 they broke through at same place.
Ezra 1:1-3 Cyrus’s cylinder found in Mesopotamia by Rassan in 1850 says: “All the people I assemble & return to their dwellings”
21. Gen. 17:20 Material from history & archeology have shown that Arabs (descendants of Ishmael ) were powerful in Near east. Gleulk has examined many excavated Arab palaces. Britain had to do certain things in beginning of this war because of the Arabs.
22. Gen. 18:1 Hebron is only important city mentioned with Abraham which has not been excavated. There is a town over ancient site. Masterman things Hebron was west of present town because of spring at one side, wall ruins & evidence of tombs. He thinks Mamre is ½ mile north of Hebron. Albright thinks Hebron is under present-day town. Arabs point out a large Oak 1 mile northwest of Hebron as Mamre- However, it is only dated back to 1200 A.D. However, both are in vicinity of Hebron.
Extra Note: Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham as a secondary wife, not the command of God-where did she get idea.
Ans. Code of Hammurabi-found at Susa in 1901 by de Morgan contains about 300 laws. Law 144 reads as follows, “If a man has married a wife & she has given to her husband a female slave, she has children by him…he shall not marry that concubine.” They were acting in accordance of the laws of land form which they came.
22A. Matt. 8:28 Coins of Gadara has Trirema on them. Kursi fulfills every detail of picture
Also Mark 5:1
22B. John 4:1-5 Why unusual for Jesus to come through Samaria? Pilgrim route avoided the country.
23. Gen. 19:37 Bible indicates flourishing situation around south end of Dead Sea was destroyed about 2000-new beginning made to east by Moabites. Dr. Gleuck has found that a break came about 2,000-land settled less intensively for 600 years. Albright also indicated a break around 2,000.
Micah 3:12 Present wall excludes both hill of Ophel & Zion-Last few yrs Zion has been plowed as fields In 130 AD Hadrian had plows dragged through the city.
24. Gen. 20:1 Critics say this is a doublet of gen. 26.7.
Answer same as note #20-Gen. 16:1.
Acts 21:28 Why did they seek to kill Paul? Tablet found by Ganneau east of Jerusalem in 1871 says if any foreigner enters beyond the partitioned gate the penalty is death.
25. Gen. 21:1 Critical Theory of Doublets-See #20-Gen. 16:1
Acts 14:6, 7 Romans write Iconium was in Lycaonia. Bible indicates otherwise. In 1910 Ramsay found monument referring to Phrygia confirming Iconium as being in Phrygia. Romans evidently put line over for administrative purposes.
26. Gen. 22: 4 3 rd day he saw Mt. Moriah-from Beersheba to Jerusalem is about 45 miles-On beast or foot the average traveling rate is 20-25 miles per day. It would have taken little over 2 days.
Acts 17: 6, 7 Word ____ actually found
27. Word translated money is usually kesef which means silver-money was first coined 700 AD by Lydians. Before 700 gold & silver were former in rings. The Shekel was a weight at that time. In Code of Hammurabi is a reference of gold & silver being used in form of fixed weights. What Abraham used was good standard money.
28. Gen. 24:2 Indicates Eliazer was heir to Abraham. Nuzi tablets show it was custom for a childless couple to adopt a son to be heir. If people adopted son & had child afterward the son would be chief heir.
29. Gen. 25:33 In one of Nuzi tablets it tells about Tuphkitilla who transferred his inheritance rights concerning a grave to his brother Kurpozak for 3 sheep.
30. Gen. 26: 5 We often feel Mosaic Law is earliest law given by God. However, here it says Abraham obeyed God (Also Enoch, Adam, Noah)-We are not surprised to find early law codes such as=Sumerian Law Cold 30000BC Hittite Code 1350 BC-shows people were agricultural (Boghos Kos-Winkler 1907) Code of Hammurabi=2000BC (Susa-deMaorgan-1901) Assyrian Codl-1450-1250 BC (Asshur-Andrea-1902-14)
31. Gen. 27:33 Nuzi tablets indicate oral blessing had legal validity. One of them tells of Tarmiya’s lawsuit against his brothers who contested his right to take Zululishtar for his wife. He won case.
This oral blessing
1. was an oral will
2. Had legal validity by his father
3. Was made to a son by his father
32. Gen. 29:18 Nuzi tablets tell of Shamash-gerrard who became the slave of Tehiptilla on condition that Tehiptilla would provide him with a wife. Another tablet tells of one man adopting another and giving him his daughter to wife.
33. Gen. 30:1 Where did Rachael get idea of giving her handmaid to Jacob? Code of Hammurabi says according to Babylonian law if a woman had no children, she might give a servant to him as a secondary wife, in order to have children by the servant. Nuzi tablets show that marriage contracts often when so far in applying this principle that the wife who failed to bear children was to provide a handmaid who would bear them.
34. Gen. 31:43 From Nuzi Tablets we have the story of adoption - Evidently Laban did adopt Jacob. If a man adopted a son he had patriarchal authority over the sons children also.
35. Gen. 32:22 At meeting of Jacob & the Lord-Jacob gave up his self-seeking. Jabbok was boundary line of Mon (?) up to about 2000 BC-Its headwaters are near the town of Rabbath Ammon. It is about 60 miles long & its banks are high.
36. Gen. 33:18,19 Jacob’s well recognized by Moslems, Jews, & Christians-It is about 75 ft. deep & has soft water when excavation was made at Shechem found gate-tower (20000 BC) resting on some geologic stratum as well. Woman in John 4 may have come here instead of springs nearby to get soft water or to avoid scorn of other women.
37. Gen. 34:4 Represented as rulers in Jacob’s time-also Abraham’s time. Word Homor means donkey or he-ass-could have derived meaning of chief burden bearer. Evidently title of ruler of Shechem. Shechem might be title of heir to throne. In time of judges (1350-1050) 500 yrs. later these titles are still used. Albright says in Mari tablets is a term “killing the ass” which means making peace treaty.
38. Gen. 35:7 Jacob’s worship was one of many evidences of monotheism- (Cain & Abel, Enoch, Noah, Abraham) Critics say monotheism was not grasped by Israel until days of Amos. Albright points out the only time in ancient near-east when we find monotheism in the leading cultural centers, Egypt & Babylonia is about 14 th century BC. Thus, we would expect to find it in Israel.
39. Gen. 36:20 Usual view is they probably didn’t exist or didn’t amount to much if they did exist. However, we find proof of them in Ras Shamra Tablets, Nuzi tablets, Boghaz Ror discoveries, Tepe Gaura, & others. Another name for them is Hurrians. In 1940 McEwan excavated Tell Fakhariya, may be capital of Hurrians.
40. Gen. 37:36 Word “officer” is sario meaning eunuch. Von Bohlen said there were no eunuchs in ancient Egypt. Tale of Two Brothers tells of a eunuch who was married.
41. Gen. 38:8 Levirate marriage provided a widow would marry her husband’s brother. Case of Oman & Tamar. Nuzi Tablets tells about a father who specifies if son dies his wife is to be married to another son. In Deut. 25:5-7 God did permit this.
42. Gen. 39:1 Meyer, German , ancient historian, says author of Joseph narrative was ignorant of Egyptian matters. Tale of Two Brothers tells a story parallel to it. Meyer says Joseph narrative must be adaptation of it & thus he is admitting its Egypticity. Date of Take of Two Brothers is a little before 1200 -600 yrs. After death of Joseph-so Joseph story would be original.
43. Gen. 40:11 Critical view-No wine in Egypt until late period Plutarch & Herodotus say so.
Ans. Harris papyrus mentions hundred of basins of wine in days of Ramesis III (1200). A Beni-Hassan (2000) one painting shows slaves carrying away master in state of intoxication. At Edfu on great temple is relief showing one of kings of Egypt holding cup-inscription says-“Grapes have been pressed in water: the king drinks it.”
44: Exodus 16:1 Route has been proven topographically. Albright says Gardiner has withdrawn his objections. Kyle says a traveler would need no other guidebook than Bible.
45. Ex. 20:1 Critics say laws came from 9 th – 7 th centuries BC
Ans. Code of Hammurabi & others. Critics such Price, Albright, & Burroughs have admitted earlier laws.
46. Ex. 26:1 Critical theory that Babylonian Scribe wrote much of Pentateuch.
Answer. Writer fits into picture of Moses. One factor is imminent knowledge of Egypt. Shesh used for linen Babylonians have & words for it. Shesh is used 38 times- 1-J section; 33- P writer which equals 34 times in Pentateuch. Ezekiel uses it around 600 BC (P writer dated 450).
47. Lev. 1:1 Critical idea-Levitical law & Mosaic authorship is P material. Lev. 1:1 ascribes it to Moses. Critics say this is just a form of speech.
Ans. a) Egyptian documents as early as 4 th dynasty (2700-2600 BC) & names are given
b) In time of Hammurabi (2000) we have documents dated & names of writers given
c) Bible itself gives author of legislation
d) In Apocryphal books only laws ascribed to Mosses are those mentioned in Pentateuch
48. Lev. 5:6 Critics assign system of offerings to late period. Ras Shamra tablets show similar offerings. Serabit Temple in Mt. Sinai examined by Petrie had task for washing altars for incense, etc.
49. Lev. 8:13 Mosaic authorship of Pentateuch testified to by nature of tabernacle-similar to Egyptian things. Girdle worn by priests is similar to an Egyptian item of clothing.
50. Lev. 26:33 Partial scatterings in 722 BC & 70 AD-In every country today are Jews. Other nations have been scattered & have died out, but Jews remain a distinct people.
51. Numbers 1:1 Two forms of dating in Pentateuch-
a) day, month, year
b) year, month, day.
1 st used in Babylon & Nineveh from earliest documents to latest. 2 nd used in Egypt form earliest dynasties to time of Ptolemedes. Dated from same event. Later type as in time of Nebuchadnezzar date in reign of some king.
52A Numbers 7:3 Albright points out early records of Tribal offerings might have come from period of the Exodus. Says alphabet was written in ink & so may have come from then.
52 B Numbers 10:12- 2,000,000 or more people included-4 sections of about ½ mile each. Colenso says the column would stretch out for 22 miles. However, Whitelaw points out they could have started to form at 6 am & be ready to move by 10. They could cover 10 miles in four hours & be ready to halt at 2 am. The second division could fall in at 2 am, travel till 6 & settle for the night by 10 pm. There is no evidence a regular camp was constructed each night-only when they planned on staying in one place for any length of time.
52C Numbers 11:31 Agnostics assumed quails were piled up 3 feet deep giving each Israelite 2,888, 463 lbs of quail for the month or 69,620 lbs each meal. The Hebrew word AL means above rather than upon. Thus, quails flew above earth at altitudes of 3 ft. or in easy reach of the Israelites who could take them for food.
53A Numbers 12:3 At American Oriental Society a paper was read by O.R. Sellers in spring of 1941 & he tried to show Moses wasn’t meek but hot-tempered & violent. He tried to show the Hebrew word ANAW did not mean meek, but “vexed”. Feigen, a Jew, said Cushite women was Zipporah-Moses did not have to defend himself for God had given him permission to marry the Cushite woman.
53B Numbers 13:26 Traditional site of Kadesh Barnea is 40 mi. south of Beersheba. Clay Trumbull thinks it is a) Ain-Dadis (1) strategic stronghold on so. Border of Canaan near principle roads leading in to Canaan. (2) Natural boundary on southern Canaan (3) Fits in with other land marks in Bible. Text.(5) best corresponds to biblical references referring to K. Barnes
b) KOSSIMA-Woolley & Lawraence (1) closer to Egyptian rodad (2) surrounded by much verdure c) AIN-EL GUDERAT-Wm. T Ellis-Nelson Gluech (1) Stronger resource of water here.
54A Numbers 13:28 Arch shows spies had real base for their fears. At Tell en Nashe 7 mi. north of Jerusalem by Pacific School of Religion found walls averaging 18 ft. thick. Excavated by ADE-Fortifications were strong.
54 B Numbers 26:1,2 There were censuses taken at Sinai (Num. 1:2); in Moab (Num 26:1-3) Arch. Shows that the Moabites compiled exact statistics-Moses could have learned Census taking here.
55 Deut. 1:28 Term seems like hyperbole, but proves to be more literal. It is found that the walls of Jericho were about 30 ft. high & about 4 ft. at Migdol. The clouds often fell to very low attitude and many have seemed to extend to heaven.
56 Deut. 2:1-4 Refused transit by Edomites so turned south of Petra-Glueck’s excavations show the Edomites had a series of fortresses form Petra north to Dead Sea.
57 Deut. 25:13 Indicates quite a divergence from standard weights-Shekel weights apparently varied form 200-300 grains. At Gezer-McAllister found that Shekel weights were either definitely below or above standard evidently man had one set by which to buy and one by which to sell.
58A Deut. 29:1 Horeb & Sinai used interchangeably in Bible-Natives call the mountain Jebel-Musa. It is 7, 370 ft. high Critical view is –written by 2 writers P writer should have commented on it. They are the same-Horeb refers to entire group of peaks; Sinai the exact peak. This is true een for R. D. Wilson was born in Alleghenies-Appalachians.
58B Deut. 34:5 Say Moses could not have written book because of his death—< < critical view of Deut.
59 Josh. 1:1 WE would not expect Egyptian words when we come to Joshua because he was quite young when he left Egypt & we do not find any. Have Philistines along coast & we find one word which apparently a Philistine word..
60 Josh 1:1 Marsten points out that an article appeared in an agnostic journal in England which said in effect- find name of Joshua & we will believe. In Amarna tablets written from kings of Palestine to kings of Egypt we find name of Joshua & ask Joshua
61A Josh 6:20 Garstang found there were two walls around the city-Inner wall 12 ft. thick, outer wall 6 ft. space of 15 ft between them. Walls all fell flat. Everything destroyed except vessels of silver, gold, iron, Y brass. Garstang & his wife cleared 100,000 pieces of pottery & found none of these materials.
61B Josh 8:1 Problem of Ai-No actual remains of Ai have been found. Vincent has suggested it may have been a fort & ruins wouldn’t remain. Another possibility is that evidence is incomplete. Another is that if it was a city and the ruins have been destroyed.
62 Judges 1:1 Why isn’t Egypt mentioned in inscriptions in connection with Palestine? Egypt held coastland corridor for through communications with Syria & north but not So. Palestine where Hebrews were.
63. Judges 8:14 Word “describe” is Hebrew word for Write. Critics say writing wasn’t well-developed until 800 BC Vatke denied writing in days of Moses. Also Speakers commentary & Schultz
Ans. Found about 1400 a) Amarna Tablets b) Ras Shamra
Time of Abraham a) Code of Hammurabi b) many clay tablets c) earliest tablets (URuk) dated about 3300 BC
64. Judges 20:16 In excavations we find many sling-stones
65. Ruth 4:7 Shoe was evidently a token payment. Nuzi tablet tells of a daughter assigned to an inheritance & given pr. Of shoes as tokens-also a man who received another mans daughter for wife & gave to father a cloak & pr. of shoes. Speiser & Koschaker agree shoes must be regarded as token payments.
66. 1 Sam 1:24 Many words in OT appear only once & can’t be clearly understood from context. Many of these are found on clay tablets & we are able to understand them better. In Ros Shamra tablets find same word as found in Deut 34:7 & means “manly vigor” In Nuzi tablets Bullock 3 seems to mean a bullock of 3 years (full grown over 2).
67. I Sam 2:12 Critics say priests eliminated things they didn’t approve of. What about sons of Eli, sons of Belial, guilty of gross immorality or sons of Samuel. Priests did not remove these things.
68. I Sam 4:1 Wenamon (Papyrus 1100 BC) an envoy of king of Egypt was in town of Phil. Someone took his money. This territory was no longer subject to Egypt. Over on Crete is found Phaentos D…with picture of Phil. Believe this is origin of them.
69. II Sam 12:27 Rabbah being besieged by David. Barton thinks this should read “pool of waters” usually there was and underground passage leading from city to water-If this could be found, army could capture city by means of passage. Examples: Megiddo; Gibeon; Jerusalem.
70. II Sam 12;31 a good many instruments made of flint-also thin flexible strips of metal-flint, bronze, iron
71. When Abraham was seeking to gain favor he sat at gate of the city. Here people would hear news, place for trade, markets located here, place of judgment. Nature of gates a) Gazer-gate at rt. angle b) Bethshemesh-rooms on both sides c) Damascus [like joint in old drawer, sort of] Walls were usually built when old ones were a) lower part of wall there b) roads let to it.
72. 1 Kings 1:1 R.D. Wilson examined over 100,00ref. & inscriptions He found 41 kings mentioned in Bible are also found arch material. Julius Africanus lists 41 kings in his writing we only find one of them & it is spelled wrong. A) 5 Egyptian b) 5 Assyrian c) 5 Babylonians d) 5 Persian e) 9 Hebrews f) 11 Moab.
73. I Kings 4:1 Formerly claimed such an empire was impossible between 1100-900 only time possible because then 2 great empires were at low ebb. Both Egypt & Assyria had a collapse then.
74. I Kings 6:8 Rabbis in Middle Ages pointed out this is only place word occurs & so questioned it. However, Moffet & U of Ch. is trap—Excavations in Mesopotamia have given evidence of several winding stairs Tepe Goura-by Speiser
75. II Kings 1:1 In past few years Bible chronology has not been thoroughly understood. O.T. chronology is not as definite as ours. Egyptian chron. often seems indefinite. We find evidences of the co-regencies things that will harmonize discrepancies. 1) Regional yr. diff in Israel from Judah – (Israel began Nisan-Apr.) (Judah-“Tishri-Oct-Sept) 2) In early time Judah reckoned on accession yr. principle-one died in Feb.-3 mo called accession yr. 3) When Judah & Israel computed reigns of other kings each used his own system 4) both Judah & Israel made use of c-regency 5) In case of co-regencies, time of reign was counted form time of c-regency.
76. II Kings 3:25 Confirmed by Moabite Stone, Tells how they stopped up wells & water supply had been destroyed.
77. II Kings 22:8 Critics say “planted” there. In foundations of building people would put important documents. Nabonidus tell us how he allighted(?) in restoring building & would look for papers in cornerstone. Caiger tells how documents were found.
Notes by Doris Floyd, transcribed by her daughter Beth Salo, from Archeology course taken by Doris at Wheaton College, date unknown.
From Beth Salo’s email by which this document was sent:
I do not know if you want them, but I am attaching the transcript of all the notes from the Bible. She took an archeology class at Wheaton (from a Dr. Free or Freeman, I believe). The notes are from that class. I had transcribed them before we donated the Bible.
11/13/2008 9:56 AM