Dr. Frederick Baliraine

Dr. Frederick Baliraine

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Email: FredBaliraine@letu.edu
Phone: (903) 233-3353
Office: Glaske O-172



Ph.D., Biochemistry, University of Nairobi
M.Sc., Biochemistry, University of Nairobi
B.S., Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University


Courses Taught

  • Microbiology for Health Sciences
  • General Biology
  • Life Science
  • Cell Biology



Makerere University, Uganda
External Examiner, School of Postgraduate Studies, 2014–present
Teaching Assistant, Biochemistry, 1994–1996
Research Assistant, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 1993–1994
LeTourneau University
Assistant Professor of Biology, 2012–present
University of San Francisco
Adjunct Instructor, Microbiology, 2011–2012
University of California, San Francisco
Postdoctoral Fellow, Division of Infectious Diseases, 2009–2012
University of California, Irvine
Postdoctoral Fellow, Program in Public Health, 2007–2009
World Health Organization (WHO)                                                                    
Temporary Advisor, Tanzania National Measles Laboratory, 2006
Uganda Virus Research Institute
Scientific Officer, 2004–2006
University of Pavia, Italy                                                                        
Visiting Researcher and World Laboratory Fellow, 2001–2003
Bukalasa Agricultural College, Uganda
Adjunct Lecturer, Veterinary Medicine, 1993–1994

Honors & Recognition

  • Fellow of the University of Pavia’s Center for International Co-operation and Development (CICOPS), 2011–present.
  • Baliraine et al. 2011, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 55: 615-622, was highlighted in Microbe Magazine 2011, 6 (3): 133 (formerly American Society for Microbiology News).
  • Granted the United States Permanent Residency Status on the basis of having an advanced degree with proven exceptional ability in the sciences, in the National Interest, 2010.
  • Inaugurated into SIGMA XI, the honor society of scientists and engineers, 2009.
  • Recognized by the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) for contributing data on malaria epidemiology, 2009.
    MAP provides up-to-date world-wide malaria endemicity maps, to facilitate the design malaria control strategies and for further research.
  • Contracted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a Temporary Advisor to the Tanzania National Measles Laboratory, Dar es Salaam, 2006.


Collaborative Projects

  • Co-investigator, Epidemiology of measles rash-like illnesses in Uganda. Collaborative study with the UK’s Health Protection Agency and the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI), under the WHO Lab Twinning program, 2010–present.
  • Member, Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine Molecular Marker Study Group, 2011–present.
  • Development of mathematical models to determine the impact of chemoprevention on the development and spread of antimalarial drug resistance. Collaborating with Dr. Scott M. Duke-Sylvester of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Dr. Jemal Mohammed-Awel of Valdosta State University, and Dr. Miranda I. Teboh-Ewungkem of Lafayette College, 2011–present.
  • Collaborative project between the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and UVRI, “Field testing of a measles-specific IgM immunoassay: Comparison of filter paper, oral fluid and serum samples for measles and rubella diagnosis,” 2006.
  • Collaborative project between Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and UVRI, “Proficiency testing of the KEMI-Hep cell II test kit for the diagnosis of Hepatitis B,” 2006.
  • Together with scientists from the CDC, participated in the investigation of measles outbreaks that occurred in the US, Mexico, Canada and the Netherlands (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no11/06-0635.htm), 2005.


Journal Papers

  • Golassa L, Baliraine FN, Enweji N,  Erko B, Swedberg G, and Aseffa A (2015). Microscopic and Molecular Evidence of the Presence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in an area with low, seasonal and unstable malaria transmission in Ethiopia. BMC Infectious Diseases 15:310; DOI 10.1186/s12879-015-1070-1; http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12879-015-1070-1.pdf
  • Golassa L, Kamugisha E, Ishengoma D, Baraka V, ShayoA, Baliraine FN, Erko B, Aseffa A, Choy A, and Swedberg G (2015). Identification of large variation in pfmdr-1 and pfubp-1 markers in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Ethiopia and Tanzania. Malaria Journal 14: 264; doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0783-3; http://www.malariajournal.com/content/14/1/264
  • Golassa L, Erko B, Baliraine FN,Aseffa A, and Swedberg G. Polymorphisms in drug resistance-associated genes in Plasmodium vivax in Ethiopia (2015). Malaria Journal 14:164; doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0625-3; http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/s12936-015-0625-3.pdf
  • Teboh-Ewungkem MI, Mohammed-Awel J, Baliraine FN, and Scott Duke-Sylvester. The Role of Human Movement on the Spread of Drug-Resistant Malaria during Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT) usage (2014). Malaria Journal 13: 428; doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-428; http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-13-428.pdf
  • Mbogo GW, Nankoberanyi S, Tukwasibwe S, Baliraine FN, Nsobya SL, Conrad MD, Arinaitwe E, Kamya M, Tappero J, Staedke SG, Dorsey G, Greenhouse B, and Rosenthal PJ (2014). Temporal Changes in Prevalence of Molecular Markers Mediating Antimalarial Drug Resistance in a High Malaria Transmission Setting in Uganda. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 91:54-61; http://www.ajtmh.org/content/91/1/54.long
  • Venkatesan M, Gadalla NB, Stepniewska K, Dahal P, Nsanzabana C, Moriera C, Price R, Mårtensson A, Rosenthal P, Dorsey G, Sutherland C, Guérin P, Davis TME, Ménard D, Adam I, Ademowo G, Arze1 C, Baliraine FN…, Sibley CH, Plowe CV (2014). Polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1: risk factors that affect treatment outcomes after artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine for falciparum malaria. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 14-0031 doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0031; http://www.ajtmh.org/content/early/2014/07/17/ajtmh.14-0031.full.pdf+html
  • Khatoon L, Baliraine FN, Malik SA, and Yan G (2013). Sequence analysis of genes associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine pyrimethamine in P. falciparum and P. vivax isolates from the Bannu district of Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 17: 596-600; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1413867013001499
  • LeClair N, Conrad M, Baliraine FN, Nsanzabana C, Nsobya S, and Philip J. Rosenthal PJ (2013). Optimization of a ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere assay for the characterization of resistance-mediating polymorphisms in African samples of Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51: 2564-70; http://jcm.asm.org/content/51/8/2564.long
  • Baliraine FN and Rosenthal PJ (2011).Prolonged selection of pfmdr1 polymorphisms after treatment of falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine in Uganda. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204: 1120-1124; http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/204/7/1120.full.pdf+html
  • Baliraine FN, Bwogi J, Bukenya H, Seguya R, Kabaliisa T, Kisakye A, Mbabazi W, Smit SB (2011). Possible interruption of indigenous measles virus transmission in Uganda, 2006-2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17: 110-113;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3204633/pdf/10-0753_finalD.pdf       
  • Baliraine FN, Nsobya SL, Achan J, Tibenderana JK, Talisuna AO, Greenhouse B, and Rosenthal PJ (2011). Limited ability of Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfnhe-1 polymorphisms to predict quinine in vitro sensitivity or clinical effectiveness in Uganda. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 55: 615-622; http://aac.asm.org/content/55/2/615.full.pdf+html This article was highlighted in Microbe Magazine, March 2011 vol. 6 (3): 133
  • Achan J, Talisuna AO, Erhart A, Yeka A, Tibenderana JK, Baliraine FN, Rosenthal PJ, D'Alessandro U (2011). Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria. Malaria Journal, 10: 144;http://www.malariajournal.com/content/10/1/144
  • Baliraine FN, Afrane Y, Amenya D, Bonizzoni M, Menge DM, Zhong D, Zhou G, Vardo-Zalik A, Githeko AK, and Yan G (2010). A cohort study of Plasmodium falciparum infection dynamics in Western Kenya Highlands. BMC Infectious Diseases, 10:283;http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2334-10-283.pdf
  • Khatoon L, Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Malik SA and Yan G (2010). Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in the Bannu district of Pakistan. Malaria Journal 9: 112; http://www.malariajournal.com/content/9/1/112
  • Midega JT, Muturi EJ, Baliraine FN, Mbogo CM, Githure J, Beier JC and Yan G (2010). Population structure of Anopheles gambiae along the Kenyan Coast. Acta Tropica,114 (2):103-108; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001706X10000264
  • Muturi EJ, Kim C-H, Baliraine FN,Musani SK, Jacob B, Githure J and Novak RJ (2010).Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rice growing area of Central Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology, 47 (2): 144-151; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20380294
  • Baliraine FN, Afrane Y, Amenya D, Bonizzoni M, Menge DM, Zhong D, Zhou G, Vardo-Zalik A,Githeko AK, and YanG (2009). High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infections in a Highland Area of Western Kenya: a Cohort Study. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 200 (1): 66-74; http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/200/1/66.full.pdf
  • Khatoon L, Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Malik SA and Yan G (2009). Prevalence of antimalarial drug resistance mutations in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from a malaria-endemic area of Pakistan. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 81(3): 525-528; http://www.ajtmh.org/content/81/3/525.full.pdf+html
  • BonizzoniM, Afrane Y, Baliraine FN, Amenya DA, Githeko AK and Yan G. Genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum populations between lowland and highland sites and antimalarial drug resistance in Western Kenya (2009). Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 9: 806-812; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567134809000860
  • Mbabazi WB, Nanyunja M, Makumbi I, Braka F, Baliraine FN, Kisakye A, Bwogi J, Mugyenyi P, Kabwongera E, and Lewis RF (2009). Achieving measles control in developing countries: Impact and lessons learnt from the 2002-2006 measles control strategy for Uganda. Health Policy and Planning, 24 (4): 261-269; http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/4/261.full.pdf+html
  • Rota J, Lowe L, Rota P, Bellini W, Redd SG. Dayan G, van Binnendijk R, Hahné S, Tipples G, Macey J, Espinoza R, Posey D, Plummer A, Bateman J, Gudiño J, Cruz-Ramirez E, Lopez-Martinez I, Anaya-Lopez L, Akwar TH, Giffin S, Carrion V, Bispo AM, Vicari A, Tan C, Wolf B, Wytovich K, Borus P, Mbugua F, Chege P, Kombich J, Akoua-Koffi C, Smit S, Bukenya H, Bwogi J, Baliraine FN, Kremer J, Muller C and Santibanez S (2006). Identical genotype B3 sequences from measles patients in 4 countries, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12 (11): 1779-1781; http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/11/pdfs/06-0635.pdf
  • Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Guglielmino CR, Osir EO, Lux SA, Mulaa FJ, Gomulski LM, Zheng L, Quilici S, Gasperi G and Malacrida AR (2004). Population genetics of the potentially invasive African fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera: Tephritidae). Molecular Ecology, 13: 683-695; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14871371
  • Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Osir EO, Lux SA, Mulaa FJ, Zheng L, Gomulski LM, Gasperi G and MalacridaAR (2003). Comparative analysis of microsatellite loci in four fruit fly species of the genus Ceratitis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 93(1): 1-10; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593677
  • Baliraine FN., Osir, E. O., Obuya, S. B., and Mulaa, F. J. (2000). Protein polymorphism in two populations of the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae). International Journal of Insect Science (Insect Science and its Application), 20(3): 227-231; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1742758400019688
  • Kabasa JD, Baliraine FN and Opuda-Asibo J. (1994). Newcastle disease maternal antibody in locally hatched and imported commercial chicks in Central Uganda. The Uganda Veterinary Journal, 2: 19-21.


Articles in Proceedings

  • Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Osir EO, Lux SA, Mulaa FJ, Quilici S, Gomulski LM, Gasperi G and Malacrida AR (2004). Medfly microsatellite markers for species diagnosis and population genetic analysis in three tephritid fruit fly species. In: Barnes B. N. (ed), Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6-10 May 2002. pp 411-414, Isteg Scientific publications, Irene, South Africa.
  • Baliraine FN, Osir EO, Obuya SB and Mulaa FJ (2001). Genetic variation in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) populations in Kenya, assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Symposium of the Biochemical Society of Kenya, 6-7 September, 2001. pp 1-3.


Gene Sequences Submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank

  • Accession numbers:    EF031462, EF031463, GU952229 - GU952246, HQ412347-HQ412386



  • Texas Association of Advisors for the Health Professions (TAAHP) Travel Award, 2013.
  • American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) Travel Award, 2011.
    This is one of the Society’s premier awards, offered to selected tropical medicine researchers and trainees from around the world to facilitate their participation in the ASTMH Annual Meeting.
  • US National Institutes of Health (NIH)/Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NIH T32), 2010-2011.
  • NIH Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, University of California, San Francisco, 2009–2012.
  • NIH Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, University of California, Irvine, 2007–2009.
  • German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Travel Fellowship: to participate in the DAAD Higher Education Forum on Capacity Building and Development Research in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in the Summer School on Resource use, Agriculture, Environment and Rural development for Sub-Saharan African Countries, at the Universities of Bonn and Giessen, Germany, Sept. 24 – Oct.7, 2005.
  • Travel Fellowship, offered jointly by the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), the Africa Genome Education Institute (AGEI), and the Nelson Mandela Foundation: to participate in the 4th Africa Genome Initiative Conference, Somerset West, South Africa. 22-25 Mar. 2006.
  • World Health Organization Fellowship: to attend a course on Polio Diagnosis and Laboratory Management at the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD), Johannesburg, South Africa, 2004.
  • Ph.D. Fellowship, offered jointly by the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), 2000–2003.
  • Two International Center for Scientific Culture - World Laboratory (ICSC-WL) fellowships, Projects FIP-10 and T1, 2001–2003.
  • Visiting Research Fellowship, offered by the University of Pavia’s Centre for International Cooperation and Development (CICOPS), Italy, 2001.
  • Dissertation Research Internship Program (DRIP) Fellowship, offered by the ICIPE, 1997–1999.
  • MS Fellowship, offered by the German Government, 1995–1999.